Establishing the number of Jewish Christians at any moment between the closing of the ghetto and the Aktion is difficult. On May 13, 1941, the Gazeta Zydowska (Jewish Gazette), a German-controlled Polish-language newspaper for Jews in the GG, wrote that as of January 1, 1941 – that is to say, a month and a half after the closing of the ghetto – there were 380,740 people living there. Of these, 378,979 were Jews; 1,718 were Catholics, Protestant, or Greek Orthodox; and 43 were of other religious sects (Gutman 1982, 62). It is not clear where the Jewish Gazette got this number.... I am...inclined to believe that the number 5,200 is closer to the truth than the 2,000 usually cited...
Two churches were
within ghetto limits, serving Christians of Jewish descent: All Saints
Church and the Church of the Annuciation on Leszno Street (now
Solidarności Avenue). Two of the residents of the parish house were immunologist Prof. Ludwik Hirszfeld and Ludwik
Zamenhof-Zaleski, the grandson of Ludwik Zamenhof - the inventor of
I had a conversation – typical of the times – with three ladies who had recently been released from prison. They had been sent there for not wearing armbands or for living outside the ghetto. All three were wealthy and well educated; all were Catholics – one was even born into that faith. The Germans turned them back into Jews. One of the ladies explained that most of the women in prison were Jews who had been christened, the wives of Polish officers.
The streets are so over-populated, it is difficult to push one's way through...There are always countless children inside the ghetto...Not all the German guards are murderers and executioners, but unfortunately, many of them do not hesitate to take up their guns and fire at the children. Every day--it is almost unbelievable--children are taken to hospital with gunshot wounds. All Jews must wear the armband with its Star of David. The children are the only exceptions, and this makes it easier for them to smuggle food in...Horrifying sights are to be seen every day...One sees people dying, lying with arms and legs outstretched, in the middle of the road. Their legs are bloated, often frost-bitten, and their faces distorted with pain... I once asked a little girl: 'What would you like to be?' 'A dog,' she answered, 'because the guards like dogs.'"
Ludwik Hirszfeld (1884–1954) was born in Warsaw...Working with a German colleague, he distinguished and named the blood groups O, A, B, and AB; a terminology quickly accepted by international institutions...
Hirszfeld was an important member of the medical establishment in the ghetto. Under the most difficult conditions, as one of the best qualified members of the Health Council, he organized anti-epidemic measures and a vaccination campaign against typhus....
He and his family fled the ghetto at the end of July or the beginning of August 1942...
Once on the "Other Side", as the Polish quarter was known, the Hirszfeld family used a false name and, for security reasons, spread the rumour that all three of them had committed suicide. This rumor had tragic repercussions. In the United States Hirszfeld's colleagues and friends were ready to ransom him and his family from the hands of the Nazis, who were not averse to conducting such transactions, provided that the sums of money were high enough. Such sums were indeed collected in the United States, but when the International Red Cross notified the Americans that the Hirszfelds had committed suicide, the ransom proposal was withdrawn.
1. One of the earliest cheeses to emerge in the renaissance of British cheesemaking in the 1980s was Yarg, which was the maker's name – Gray – spelled backwards. Covered in nettle leaves, it has a distinctive appearance and although the flavour is mild, it is nonetheless a very pleasant cheese with easy appeal.
2. Perhaps the most unusual cheese I have ever tasted is Yak's milk cheese. One day, a British cheesemaker, who had visited China, arrived with a small container, no bigger than a cigarette packet; inside were what loked like bent matchsticks. These turned out to be dried curd. This cheese (!) was made in Mongolia where he had been invited to advise the locals on cheesemaking. It was the dairy equivalent of Beef Jerky or Biltong. Very dry, very chewy, quite salty, not a huge amount of flavour; but vaguely dairyish. An experience, but not a sure-fire winner on the cheeseboard, I fear.
Arthur Cunynghame is a former Royal Warrant Holder as cheesemonger to the Queen. In The Cheesemonger's Tales, he explains why most Cheshire cheese these days is crap:
Cheshire is the oldest recorded English cheese. Certainly it was mentioned in the Domesday Book; it is also said to have been one of the Celtic cheeses already made in Britain when the Romans came......
Over the years, Cheshire cheese's popularity increased until it became far and away Britain's most widely eaten cheese in the 19th century, easily outselling Cheddar. So much so that whole 'cheese trains' took the cheese from Cheshire to London......Post war, Cheshire cheese fell out of popularity partly because, being crumbly, it was difficult to pre-pack; partly because a cheese grader called Groves liked thin acidic cheeses, a taste not shared by the public; partly because farmers were slow to start making cheese again as it was far easier to sell their milk as liquid to the Milk Marketing Board; and partly becasue factory production, which took over, produced bland, anonymous cheese, giving all Cheshire cheese an undeserved poor reputation.
My, my...I have been remiss about posting recently. Before recently, I was also remiss. A few statistics to make the point: 17 days since my last post (which was goat-related) Almost six months since my last Zimbabwe-related post Almost a year to the day since my last post about Albanian literature BUT Almost two years since my last post about cheese.